List of 10 Deepest Part of the Ocean

In this world, the deepest part of the Ocean is widely known as the Challenger Deep, but there is other deepest part of the sea that is not much known. When this great planet of ours, the Earth, was created, there was no water in it. As it cooled down and rains started to fall, the great valleys and gorges were covered with water. These formed the seas and oceans as we see them today.

Deepest part of Ocean in the World

70% of our planet is covered with water. The total volume is a mind-boggling 1.3 billion cubic kilometers. These vast water bodies hold many mysteries and wonders in their chests that are yet to be explored by humans. And in the great depth of the oceans, there are mountains, plateaus, valleys, and flatlands – just like on the surface of the planet. And the ones underwater are much bigger, as compared to their land versions.

And these water bodies are deep. In fact, very deep at points. In certain parts around the continents, the depth can go up to 3.5 kilometers! The deepest points are those that can be accessed. These points are also called trenches. Shifting tectonic plates create such abysses. These zones are known as hadal zones. There are more than 40 such zones that have the deepest points of the planet in them. Below, we will take a look at the 10 deepest points of the oceans on Earth, starting from the least deep among them.

10 Deepest Part of the Ocean 

Mariana Trench (Challenger Deep)

This is the deepest part of the planet. The 2,550 km-long and 69 km-wide trench lies in the western Pacific Ocean. It is shaped like a crescent, appearing like a scar. Many converging tectonic plates had collided with each other, forming the trench and the deep holes within. The water density rises by almost 5% at the bottom of the trench. But in spite of this immense water pressure, several marine faunas have been discovered there. A few examples are flatfish, shrimp, various large crustaceans, snailfish, etc. the deepest point here – and also on the planet – is known as the Challenger Deep.

Maximum depth: 10.91 km

Tonga Trench

The Tonga Trench is the second deepest part of the ocean that lies in the southwest Pacific Ocean, towards the northern part of the Kermadec Tonga Subduction Zone. This trench contains the planet’s 2nd deepest and the Southern Hemisphere’s deepest point. It is in close proximity to the island of Tonga and around 2,500 km from New Zealand’s North Island. The tectonic plate movements here have caused the formation of several large volcanoes in the vicinity trenches. Marine life is also visible in this trench. The deepest point is the Horizon Deep.

Maximum depth: 10.88 km

Philippine Trench

Located in the Philippine Sea, this prominent trench is also known as the Mindanao Trench. A smaller Philippine Plate collided with the much larger Eurasian Plate, thereby creating this trench – around 8-9 million years ago. This is the deepest among the several trenches nearby. Till the 1970s, this was considered to be the deepest trench in the planet. The trench spans 1,300 km in length and 30 km in width. The deepest point is called the Galathea Depth.

Maximum depth: 10.54 km

Kuril-Kamchatka Trench

Located in the Pacific Ocean in close proximity to the Kuril Island and the Kamchatka coast, this area is known for several recurring volcanic activities. This trench was formed in the later years of the Cretaceous Period. The nearby volcanic arcs were also created during those days.

Maximum depth: 10.5 km

Kermadec Trench

The first descent to this trench happened as late as 2012 that lead to some interesting marine life discoveries. It has also seen mishaps occurring to exploration vessels owing to the immense water pressure. This trench covers an area of almost 1,000 km between the Hikurangi Plateau and the Louisville Seamount Chain and also creates the 2,000 km-long Kermadec-Tonga subduction system. It lies on the South Pacific Ocean floors. The subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Indo-Australian Plate created this trench.

Maximum depth: 10.04 km

Izu-Ogasawara Trench

This trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean towards the southern part of Japan. This is also called the Izu-Bonin Trench. The Pacific Plate went beneath the Philippine Sea Plate, causing this trench and also creating the Bonin &Izu Islands.

Maximum depth: 9.78 km

Japan Trench

Part of the famous Pacific Ring of Fire, the Japan Trench – located east of Japan – is another deep submarine trench. The trench is located in the area between the Bonin & Kuril Islands. Subduction of the Pacific Plate that happened beneath the Okhotsk Plate, caused this trench. This area also sees frequent earthquakes and tsunamis.

Maximum depth: 9 km

Puerto Rico Trench

The deepest point in the region between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, this trench is 800 km long. It lies in a seismically active zone, capable of unleashing devastating tsunamis. The seafloor was first explored in 1964. The deepest point is Milwaukee Deep which is also the Atlantic Ocean’s deepest point.
Maximum depth: 8.64 km

South Sandwich Trench

This is the 2nd deepest trench in the Atlantic Ocean<. It runs for more than 950 km, located in the southern Atlantic Ocean – 100 km off the eastern coast of South Sandwich Islands. The southernmost part of the South American Plate was subducted beneath the smaller South Sandwich Plate. This formed the trench. There is an active volcanic arc in the area.

Maximum depth: 8.42 km

Atacama Trench

Also known as the Peru-Chile Trench, this is located in the beautiful eastern Pacific Ocean, close to approx 150 km off the coasts of the two countries. Covering an area of close to 590,000 sq km, the trench is around 5,900 km long and has a width of more than 60 km. between the South American and Nazca plates, a convergent boundary had been formed geologically. That gave birth to this trench. The deepest point is known as Richards Deep.

Maximum depth: 8.06 km

Quick Overview of the Deepest Part of the Ocean

Sl. No.Name of Deepest PartOceanLocation
1Mariana TrenchPacific OceanWestern Pacific Ocean (east of Mariana Islands)
2Tonga TrenchPacific OceanNear Tonga
3Philippine TrenchPacific OceanEast of the Philippines
4Kuril-Kamchatka TrenchPacific OceanNear Kuril islands
5Kermadec TrenchPacific OceanNortheast of New Zealand
6Izu-Ogasawara TrenchPacific OceanNear Izu and Bonin islands
7Japan TrenchPacific OceanEast of Japan
8Puerto Rico TrenchAtlantic OceanBoundary of Caribbean Sea and Atlantic ocean
9South Sandwich TrenchAtlantic OceanEast of the South Sandwich Islands
10Atacama TrenchPacific OceanCoasts of Peru and Chile

 

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